Some Scientific References on Tornadoes

Compiled by Roger Edwards

This is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all scientific information on tornadoes. Instead, this list offers a large sampling of papers commonly used in modern tornado science. Research authors are welcome to submit references. Listing is by author, then reverse chronology.


    TORNADO HISTORY, CLIMATOLOGY & RECORDKEEPING

      Ashley, W.S., 2007: Spatial and temporal analysis of tornado fatalities in the United States: 1880–2005. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1214–1228.

      Concannon, P.R., H.E. Brooks and C.A. Doswell III, 2000: Climatological risk of strong and violent tornadoes in the United States. Preprints, 2nd Conf. Environ. Applications, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Long Beach, CA.

      Bluestein, H.B., 2009: The formation and early evolution of the Greensburg, Kansas, tornadic supercell on 4 May 2007. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 899–920.

      Brooks, H.E., 2004: On the relationship of tornado path length and width to intensity. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 310–319.

      ——, C.A. Doswell III, and M. P. Kay, 2003: Climatological estimates of local daily tornado probability for the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 626–640.

      ——, J. W. Lee, and J. P. Craven, 2003: The spatial distribution of severe thunderstorm and tornado environments from global reanalysis data. Atmos. Res., 67–68, 73–94.

      Cook, A.R., and J.T. Schaefer, 2008: The relation of El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to winter tornado outbreaks. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3121–3137.

      Corfidi, S., S. Weiss, J. Kain, S. Corfidi, R. Rabin, and J. Levit, 2010: Revisiting the 3–4 April 1974 Super Outbreak of tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 465–510.

      ——, and C. A. Doswell III, 2002: Deaths in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado from a historical perspective. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 354–361.

      Dean, A.R., 2010: An analysis of clustered tornado events. Preprints, 25th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Denver CO, P2.19.

      Doswell, C. A. III, 2007: Small sample size and data quality issues illustrated using tornado occurrence data. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 2(5), 1–16.

      ——, 2007: Historical overview of severe convective storms research. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 2(1), 1–25.

      ——, R. Edwards, R.L. Thompson, J.A. Hart, and K.C. Crosbie, 2006: A simple and flexible method for ranking severe weather events. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 939–951.

      ——, and D. W. Burgess, 1988: On some issues of United States tornado climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 495–501.

      Dotzek, N., 2003: An updated estimate of tornado occurrence in Europe. Atmos. Res., 67–68, 153–161.

      French, M.M., H.B. Bluestein, L.J. Wicker, D.C. Dowell, and M.R. Kramar, 2009: An example of the use of mobile, Doppler radar data for tornado verification. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 884–891.

      Feuerstein, B., N. Dotzek, and J. Grieser, 2005: Assessing a tornado climatology from global tornado intensity distributions. J. Climate, 18, 585–596.

      Fujita, T.T., 1989: The Teton–Yellowstone tornado of 21 July 1987. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117, 1913–1940.

      ——, 1987: U.S. Tornadoes, Part I: 70-year statistics. Satellite and Meteorology Research Paper, 218, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 122 pp. NTIS PB 87-127742.

      ——, 1977: Anticyclonic tornadoes. Weatherwise, 30 (2), 51–64.

      ——, 1974: Jumbo tornado outbreak of 3 April 1974. Weatherwise, 27, 116–126.

      ——, 1966: Aerial survey of the Palm Sunday tornadoes of April 11, 1965. Satellite and Meteorology Research Paper, 49, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 35 pp.

      ——, D.L. Bradbury, and C.F. Van Thullenar, 1970: Palm Sunday tornadoes of April 11, 1965. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 98, 29–69.

      Grazulis, T.P., 1997: Significant Tornadoes: Update, 1992–1995. Environmental Films, 118 pp.

      Grazulis, T.P., 1993: Significant Tornadoes: 1680–1991. Environmental Films, 1326 pp.

      Kis, A. K. and J. M. Straka, 2010: Nocturnal tornado climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 545–561.

      Lemon, L.R. and M. Umscheid, 2008: The Greensburg, Kansas tornadic storm: A storm of extremes. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 2.4.

      Ostuno, E.J., 2008: A case study in forensic meteorology: Investigating the 3 April 1956 tornadoes in southwest Lower Michigan. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 3 (1), 1–33.

      Ray, P.S., P. Bieringer, X. Niu, and B. Whissel, 2003: An improved estimate of tornado occurrence in the central plains of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1026–1031.

      Schaefer, J.T., and C. Marzban, 2000: Tornadoes in the United States as related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL.

      ——, and R. Edwards, 1999: The SPC tornado/severe thunderstorm database. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Applied Climatology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 603–606.

      Schneider, R.S., J.T. Schaefer, and H.E. Brooks, 2004: Tornado outbreak days: An updated and expanded climatology (1875–2003). Preprints, 22nd Conf. Severe Local Storms, Hyannis MA, P5.1.

      ——, H.E. Brooks, and J.T. Schaefer, 2004: Tornado outbreak day sequences: historic events and climatology (1875–2003). Preprints, 22nd Conf. Severe Local Storms, Hyannis MA, 12.1.

      Shafer, C.M., and C.A. Doswell III, 2011: Using kernel density estimation to identify, rank, and classify severe weather outbreak events. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 6 (2), 1–28.

      Speheger, D.A., C.A. Doswell III., and G.J. Stumpf, 2002: The tornadoes of 3 May 1999: Event verification in central Oklahoma and related issues. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 362–381.

      Thompson, D.T., and P.E. Roundy, 2013: The relationship between the Madden-Julian oscillation and U.S. violent tornado outbreaks in the spring. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 2087–2095.

      Thompson, R.L., and R. Edwards, 2000: An overview of environmental conditions and forecast implications of the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 682–699.

      ——, and M.D. Vescio, 1998: The Destruction Potential Index — A method for comparing tornado days. Preprints, 19th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Minneapolis, 280–282.

      Trapp, R.J., and H.E. Brooks, 2013: Regional characterization of tornado activity. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 654–659.

      —— G.J. Stumpf, and K.L. Manross, 2005: A reassessment of the percentage of tornadic mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 680–687.

      ——, S.A. Tessendorf, E.S. Godfrey, and H.E. Brooks, 2005: Tornadoes from squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Climatological distribution. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 23–34.

      Verbout, S.M., H.E. Brooks, L.M. Leslie, and D.M. Schultz, 2006: Evolution of the U.S. tornado database: 1954–2003. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 86–93.

      Weaver, S.J., S. Baxter, and A. Kumar, 2012: Climatic role of North American low-level jets on U.S. regional tornado activity. J. Climate, 25, 6666–6683.

      Weiss S.J., 1987: Some climatological aspects of forecasting tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones. Preprints, 17th Conf. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteor., Amer. Meteor. Soc., Miami, 160–163.

      Widen, H.M., and Coauthors, 2013: Adjusted tornado probabilities. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (7), 1–12.

    TORNADO & SUPERCELL FORECASTING & WARNING

      Banacos, P.C., and M.L. Ekster, 2010: The association of the elevated mixed layer with significant severe weather events in the northeastern United States. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 1082–1102.

      Blanchard, D.O., 2011: Supercells in environments with atypical hodographs. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 1075–1083.

      Brotzge, J., S.E. Nelson, R.L. Thompson, and B.T. Smith, 2013: Tornado probability of detection and lead time as a function of convective mode and environmental parameters. Wea. Forecasting, 28, 1261–1262.

      ——, K. Hondl, B. Philips, L.R. Lemon, E.J. Bass, D. Rude, and D.L. Andra Jr., 2010: Evaluation of distributed collaborative adaptive sensing for detection of low-level circulations and implications for severe weather warning operations. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 173–189.

      Bunkers, M.J., B.A. Klimowski, J.W. Zeitler, R.L. Thompson, and M.L. Weisman, 2000: Predicting supercell motion using a new hodograph technique. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 61–79.

      ——, M.R. Hjelmfelt, and P.L. Smith, 2006: An observational examination of long-lived supercells. Part I: Characteristics, evolution, and demise. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 673–688.

      ——, J.S. Johnson, L.J. Czepyha, J.M. Grzywacz, B.A. Klimowski, and M.R. Hjelmfelt, 2006: An observational examination of long-lived supercells. Part II: Environmental conditions and forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 689–714.

      Burgess, D.W., R. J. Donaldson Jr., and P. R. Desrochers, 1993: Tornado detection and warning by radar. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 203–221.

      Craven, J.P., and H.E. Brooks, 2004: Baseline climatology of sounding derived parameters associated with deep, moist convection. Natl. Wea. Dig., 28, 13–24.

      Davies, J.M, 2006: Tornadoes in environments with small helicity and/or high LCL heights. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 579–594.

      ——, 2006: Tornadoes with cold core 500-mb lows. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 1051–1062.

      ——, 2004: Estimations of CIN and LFC associated with tornadic and nontornadic supercells. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 714–726.

      ——, and R.H. Johns, 1993: Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes. Part I: Helicity and mean shear magnitudes. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church et al., Eds.), Geophysical Monograph 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 573–582.

      Dean, A.R., and R.S. Schneider, 2008: Forecast challenges at the NWS Storm Prediction Center relating to the frequency of favorable severe storm environments. Preprints, 24th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Savannah GA, 9A.2.

      Doswell, C. A. III, and D. M. Schultz, 2006: On the use of indices and parameters in forecasting severe storms. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 1(3), 1–22.

      ——, D. V. Baker, and C. A. Liles, 2002: Recognition of negative factors for severe weather potential: A case study. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 937–954.

      ——, S.J. Weiss and R.H. Johns (1993): Tornado forecasting: A review. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church et al., Eds), Geophys. Monogr. No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 557–571.

      ——, 1991: A Review for Forecasters on the Application of Hodographs to Forecasting Severe Thunderstorms. Nat. Wea. Dig , 16, No. 1, 2–16.

      ——, 1982: The operational meteorology of convective weather. Vol. I: Operational mesoanalysis. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NSSFC_5, available from the author.

      ——, 1985: The operational meteorology of convective weather. Vol. II: Storm-scale snalysis. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ESG-15, available from the author.

      Duda, J.D., and W.A. Gallus, 2010: Spring and summer Midwestern severe weather reports in supercells compared to other morphologies. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 190–206.

      Dunn, L.B., and S.V. Vasiloff, 2001: Tornadogenesis and operational considerations of the 11 August 1999 Salt Lake City tornado as seen from two different Doppler radars. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 377–398.

      Edwards, R., S.F. Corfidi, R.L. Thompson, J.S. Evans, J.P. Craven, J.P. Racy, D.W. McCarthy and M.D. Vescio, 2002: Storm Prediction Center forecasting issues related to the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 544–558.

      ——, R.L. Thompson and J.G. LaDue, 2000: Initiation of storm A (3 May 1999) along a possible horizontal convective roll. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 60–63.

      Esterheld, J.M. and D.J. Giuliano, 2008: Discriminating between tornadic and non-tornadic supercells: A new hodograph technique. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 3 (2), 1–50.

      Fischer, A., and J. M. Davies, 2009: Significant nighttime tornadoes in the plains associated with relatively stable low-level conditions. Electronic J. Operational Meteor., 10 (4), 1–33.

      Fujita, T.T., and D. Stiegler, 1985. Detailed analysis of the tornado outbreak in the Carolinas by using radar, satellite, and aerial survey data. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 271–274.

      Garner, J.M., 2013: A study of synoptic-scale tornado regimes. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (3), 1–25.

      ——, 2012: Environments of significant tornadoes occurring within the warm sector versus those occurring along surface baroclinic boundaries. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 7 (5), 11–28.

      Grams, J.S., R.L. Thompson, D.V. Snively, J.A. Prentice, G.M. Hodges, and L.J. Reames, 2012: A climatology and comparison of parameters for significant tornado events in the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 106–123.

      Gonski, R.F., B.P. Woods and W.D. Korotky, 1989: The Raleigh tornado — 28 November 1988. An operational perspective. Preprints, 12th Conf. Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–178.

      Hales, J.E. and M.D. Vescio, 1996: The March 1994 Tornado Outbreak in the Southeast U.S. from an SPC Perspective. Preprints, 18th Conf. Severe Local Storms, San Francisco CA, 32–36.

      Houston, A.L., R.L. Thompson, and R. Edwards, 2008: The optimal bulk wind differential depth and the utility of the upper-tropospheric storm-relative flow for forecasting supercells. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 825–837.

      Johns, R.H., J.M. Davies, and P.W. Leftwich, 1993: Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes. Part II: Variations in the combinations of wind and instability parameters. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards, Geophys. Mongr., No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 583–590.

      ——, and C.A. Doswell III, 1992: Severe local storms forecasting. Wea. and Forecasting, 7, 588–612.

      Kay, M.P., and H.E. Brooks, 2000: Verification of probabilistic severe storm forecasts at the SPC. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 285–288.

      Keene, K.M., P.T. Schlatter, J.E. Hales, and H.E. Brooks, 2008: Evaluation of NWS watch and warning performance related to tornadic events. Preprints, 24th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P3.19.

      Lanicci, J.M., and T.T. Warner, 1991: A synoptic climatology of the elevated mixed-layer inversion over the southern Great Plains. Part I: Structure, dynamics and seasonal evolution. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 181–197.

      ——, and ——, 1991: A synoptic climatology of the elevated mixed-layer inversion over the southern Great Plains. Part II: The life cycle of the lid. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 198–213.

      ——, and ——, 1991: A synoptic climatology of the elevated mixed-layer inversion over the southern Great Plains. Part III: Relationship to severe-storms climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 214–226.

      Maddox, R.A., M.S. Gilmore, C.A. Doswell III, R.H. Johns, C.A. Crisp, D.W. Burgess, J.A. Hart, and S.F. Piltz, 2013: Meteorological analyses of the Tri-State tornado event of March 1925. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (1), 1–27.

      Markowski, P.M., E.N. Rasmussen, and J.M. Straka, 1998: The occurrence of tornadoes in supercells interacting with boundaries during VORTEX-95. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 852–859.

      Mead, C.M., and R.L. Thompson, 2011: Environmental characteristics associated with nocturnal significant-tornado events in the central and southern Great Plains. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 6 (6), 1–35.

      Moller, A.R., 2001: Severe local storms forecasting. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor. Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc, 433–480, doi: 10.1175/0065-9401-28.50.433.

      ——, C.A. Doswell III, M.P. Foster, and G.R. Woodall, 1994: The operational recognition of supercell thunderstorm environments and storm structures. Wea. Forecasting, 9, 327–347.

      Ostby, F.P., 1999: target="_blank">Improved accuracy in severe storm forecasting by the Severe Local Storms Unit during the last 25 years: Then versus now. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 526–543.

      Quoetone, E.M., D.A. Andra, Jr., and W.F. Bunting, 2000: Warning decision making process during the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–4.

      Potvin, C.K., K.L. Elmore, and S.J. Weiss, 2010: Assessing the impacts of proximity sounding criteria on the climatology of significant tornado environments. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 921–930.

      Ramsay, H. A., and C. A. Doswell III, 2005: A sensitivity study of hodograph-based methods for estimating supercell motion. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 954–970.

      Rasmussen, E. N., 2003: Refined supercell and tornado forecast parameters. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 530–535.

      ——, and D.O. Blanchard, 1998: A baseline climatology of sounding-derived supercell and tornado forecast parameters. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 1148–1164.

      ——, E.M., and J. M. Straka, 1998: Variations in supercell morphology. Part I: Observations of the role of upper-level storm-relative flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2406–2421.

      Ryzhkov, A.V., T.J. Schuur, D.W. Burgess, and D.S. Zrnic, 2005: Polarimetric tornado detection. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 557–570.

      Roebber, P.J., D.M. Schultz, and R. Romero, 2002: Synoptic regulation of the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 399–429.

      Rogash, J.A., and J.P. Racy, 2002: Some meteorological characteristics of significant tornado events occurring in proximity to flash flooding. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 155–159.

      Sanders, F., and C.A. Doswell III (1995): A case for detailed surface analysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 505–521.

      Shafer, C.M., C.A. Doswell III, L.M. Leslie, and M.B. Richman, 2010: On the use of areal coverage of parameters favorable for severe weather to discriminate major outbreaks. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 5 (7), 1–44.

      ——, A.E. Mercer, C.A. Doswell III, M.B. Richman, and L.M. Leslie, 2009: Evaluation of WRF forecasts of tornadic and nontornadic outbreaks when initialized with synoptic-scale input. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1250–1271.

      Smith, B.T., R.L. Thompson, J.S. Grams, C. Broyles, and H.E. Brooks, 2012: Convective modes for significant severe thunderstorms in the contiguous United States. Part I: Storm classification and climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 1114–1135.

      Spratt, S.M., D.W. Sharp, P. Welsh, A.C. Sandrik, F. Alsheimer and C. Paxton, 1997: A WSR-88D assessment of tropical cyclone outer rainband tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 479–501.

      Stensrud, D.J. and S.J. Weiss, 2002: Mesoscale model ensemble forecasts of the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 526–543.

      Thompson, R.L., B.T. Smith, A.R. Dean, and P.T. Marsh, 2013: Spatial distributions of tornadic near-storm environments by convective mode. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (5), 1–22.

      —&mdash, B.T. Smith, J.S. Grams, A.R. Dean, and C. Broyles, 2012: Convective modes for significant severe thunderstorms in the contiguous United States. Part II: Supercell and QLCS tornado environments. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 1136–1154.

      ——, C.M. Mead and R. Edwards, 2007: Effective storm-relative helicity and bulk shear in supercell thunderstorm environments. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 102–115.

      ——, R. Edwards, J. A. Hart, K. L. Elmore, and P. Markowski, 2003: Close proximity soundings within supercell environments obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 1243–1261.

      ——, and R. Edwards, 2000: An overview of environmental conditions and forecast implications of the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 682–699.

      ——, 1998: Eta model storm-relative winds associated with tornadic and nontornadic supercells. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 125–137.

      Togstad, W.E., J.M. Davies, S.J. Corfidi, D.R. Bright, A.R. Dean, 2011: Conditional probability estimation for significant tornadoes based on Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) profiles. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 729–743.

      Trapp, R.J., G.J. Stumpf, and K.L. Manross, 2005: A reassessment of the percentage of tornadic mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 680–687.

      Vescio, M.D., and R.L. Thompson, 2001: Subjective tornado probability forecasts in severe weather watches. Wea. Forecasting., 16, 192–195.

      Wakimoto, R.M., and J.W. Wilson, 1989: Non-supercell tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1113–1140.

      Weiss, S.J., 1992: Some aspects of forecasting severe thunderstorms during cool-season return-flow episodes. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 964–981.

      ——, 1987: Some climatological aspects of forecasting tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones. Preprints, 17th Conf. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteor., Amer. Meteor. Soc., Miami, 160–163.

      ——, 1985: On the operational forecasting of tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones. Preprints, 14th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis IN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 293–296.

      Young, G.S., and J.M. Fritsch, 1989: A proposal for general conventions in analysis of mesoscale boundaries. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 70, 1412–1421.

      Zeitler, J.W., and M.J. Bunkers, 2005: Operational forecasting of supercell motion: Review and case studies using multiple datasets. Natl. Wea. Dig., 29 (1), 81–97.

    TORNADOES IN TROPICAL CYCLONES

      Agee, E. M., and A. Hendricks, 2011: An assessment of the climatology of Florida hurricane-induced tornadoes (HITs): Technology versus meteorology. J. Climate, 24, 5218–5222.

      Baker, A.K., M.D. Parker, and M.D. Eastin, 2009: Environmental ingredients for supercells and tornadoes within Hurricane Ivan. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 223–244.

      Belanger, J.I., J.A. Curry, and C.D. Hoyos, 2009: Variability in tornado frequency associated with U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L17805, doi: 10.1029/2009GL040013.

      Curtis, L., 2004: Midlevel dry intrusions as a factor in tornado outbreaks associated with landfalling tropical cyclones from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 411–427.

      Edwards, R., 2012: Tropical cyclone tornadoes: A review of knowledge in research and prediction. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 7 (6), 1-61.

      ——, A.R. Dean, R.L. Thompson and B.T. Smith, 2012: Convective modes for significant severe thunderstorms in the contiguous United States. Part III: Tropical cyclone tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 27, 1507–1519.

      ——, 2010: Tropical cyclone tornado records for the modernized NWS era. Preprints, 25th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Denver CO, P3.1.

      ——, and A.E. Pietrycha, 2006: Archetypes for surface baroclinic boundaries influencing tropical cyclone tornado occurrence. Preprints, 23rd Conf. Severe Local Storms, St. Louis MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P8.2 (CD-ROM).

      ——: Tornado production by exiting tropical cyclones. Preprints, 23rd Conf. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteor., Amer. Meteor. Soc., Dallas, 160–163.

      Gentry, R.C., 1983: Genesis of tornadoes associated with hurricanes. Mon Wea. Rev., 111, 1793–1805.

      Green, B.W., F. Zhang, and P.M. Markowski, 2011: Multiscale processes leading to supercells in the landfalling outer rainbands of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Wea. Forecasting, 26, 828–847.

      Hill, E.L., W. Malkin, and W.A. Schulz Jr., 1966: Tornadoes associated with cyclones of tropical origin-practical features. J. Appl. Meteor., 5, 745–763.

      Lee, W.-C., M.M. Bell, and K.E. Goodman Jr., 2008: Supercells and mesocyclones in the outer rainbands of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16803, doi:10.1029/2008GL034724.

      McCaul, E.W., Jr., 1987: Observations of the Hurricane "Danny" tornado outbreak of 16 August 1985. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1206–1223.

      ——, 1991: Buoyancy and shear characteristics of hurricane-tornado environments. Mon Wea. Rev., 119, 1954–1978.

      —— and M.L. Weisman, 1996: Simulations of shallow supercell storms in landfalling hurricane environments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 408–429.

      Moore, T. W., and R. Dixon, 2011: Climatology of tornadoes associated with Gulf Coast-landfalling hurricanes. Geog. Rev., 101 (3), 371–395.

      Novlan, D.J., and W.M. Gray, 1974: Hurricane-spawned tornadoes. Mon Wea. Rev., 102, 476–488.

      Orton, R., 1970: Tornadoes associated with Hurricane Beulah on September 19–23, 1967. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 541–547.

      Pietrycha, A.E., and C.D. Hannon, 2002: Tornado distribution associated with Hurricane Floyd 1999. Preprints, 21st Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 619–622.

      Rao, G.V., J.W. Scheck, R. Edwards, and J.T. Schaefer, 2004: Structures of mesocirculations producing tornadoes associated with Tropical Cyclone Frances (1998). Pure Appl. Geophys., 162, 1627–1641.

      Sadowski, A., 1962: Tornadoes associated with Hurricane Carla, 1961. Mon. Wea. Rev., 90, 514–516.

      Schneider, D., and S. Sharp, 2007: Radar signatures of tropical cyclone tornadoes in central North Carolina. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 278–286.

      Schultz, L. A., and D. J. Cecil, 2009: Tropical cyclone tornadoes, 1950–2007. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3471–3484.

      Spratt, S.M., D.W. Sharp, P. Welsh, A.C. Sandrik, F. Alsheimer and C. Paxton, 1997: A WSR-88D assessment of tropical cyclone outer rainband tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 479–501.

      Suzuki, O., H. Niino, H. Ohno, and H. Nirasawa, 2000: Tornado-producing mini-supercells associated with Typhoon 9019. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1868–1882.

      Verbout, S.M., D.M. Schultz, L.M. Leslie, H.E. Brooks, D.J. Karoly and K.L. Elmore, 2007: Tornado outbreaks associated with landfalling hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin: 1954–2004. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 97, 255–271.

      Vescio, M.D., S.J. Weiss, and F.P. Ostby, 1996: Tornadoes associated with Tropical Storm Beryl. NWA Dig., 21 (1), 2–10.

      Weiss, S.J., 1987: Some climatological aspects of forecasting tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones. Preprints, 17th Conf. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteor., Amer. Meteor. Soc., Miami, 160–163.

      ——, 1985: On the operational forecasting of tornadoes associated with tropical cyclones. Preprints, 14th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis IN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 293–296.

    TORNADO DAMAGE AND CLASSIFICATION

      Beck, V., and N. Dotzek, 2010: Reconstruction of near-surface tornado wind fields from forest damage. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 1517–1537.

      Blanchard, D.O., 2013: A comparison of wind speed and forest damage associated with tornadoes in northern Arizona. Wea. Forecasting, 28, 408–417.

      Doswell, C.A. III, H.E. Brooks, and N. Dotzek, 2009: On the implementation of the enhanced Fujita scale in the USA. Atmos. Res., 93, 554–563.

      ——, and H.E. Brooks, 2002: Lessons learned from the damage produced by the tornadoes of 3 May 1999. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 611–618.

      ——, and D. W. Burgess, 1988: On some issues of United States tornado climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 495–501.

      Dotzek, N., 2009: Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales. Atmos. Res., 93, 564–574.

      Edwards, R., J. G. LaDue, J. T. Ferree, K. L. Scharfenberg, C. Maier, and W. L. Coulbourne, 2013: Tornado intensity estimation: Past, present and future. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 641–653.

      ——, 2003: Rating tornado damage: An exercise in subjectivity. Preprints, Symp. on F-Scale and Severe Weather Damage Assessment, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P1.2.

      Forbes, G. S., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1983: A concentrated outbreak of tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts, and implications regarding vortex classification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 220–235.

      Frelich, L. E., and E.J. Ostuno, 2012: Estimating wind speeds of convective storms from tree damage. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 7 (9), 1–19.

      Fujita, T.T., 1981: Tornadoes and downbursts in the context of generalized planetary scales. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1511–1533.

      ——, 1971: Proposed characterization of tornadoes and hurricanes by area and intensity. Satellite and Meteorology Research Paper, 91, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 42 pp.

      ——, 1966: Aerial survey of the Palm Sunday tornadoes of April 11, 1965. Satellite and Meteorology Research Paper, 49, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 35 pp.

      ——, and A. D. Pearson, 1973: Results of FPP classification of 1971 and 1972 tornadoes. Preprints, 8th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Denver CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 142–145.

      Grazulis, T.P., 1993: Significant Tornadoes: 1680–1991. Environmental Films, St Johnsbury VT, 1326 pp.

      Marshall, T.P., 2004: The enhanced Fujita (EF) scale. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3B.2.

      ——, 2000: Tornado damage survey at Moore, Oklahoma. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 582–598.

      Meaden, G.T., L. Kolendowicz, A. Kosa-Kiss, I. Marcinoniene, M. Sioutas, H. Tooming, and J. Tyrrell, 2007: Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-scale and the Fujita scale. Atmos. Res., 83, 446–449.

      Pan, K., P. Montpelier and M. Zadeh, 2002: Engineering observations of 3 May 1999 Oklahoma tornado damage. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 599–610.

      Thompson, R.L., and M.D. Vescio, 1988. The Destruction Potential Index — a method for comparing tornado days. Preprints, 19th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Minneapolis, 280–282.

      Wurman, J., and C.R. Alexander, 2005: The 30 May 1998 Spencer, South Dakota, storm. Part II: Comparison of observed damage and radar-derived winds in the tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 97–119.

      Yuan, M., M. Dickens-Micozzi and M. A. Magsig, 2002: Analysis of tornado damage tracks from the 3 May tornado outbreak using multispectral satellite imagery. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 382–398.

    TORNADO OBSERVATIONS, MEASUREMENT, SPOTTING AND CHASING

      Bedard, A.J. Jr., and C. Ramzy, 1983: Surface meteorological observations in severe thunderstorms. Part I: design details of TOTO. J. Appl. Meteor., 22, 911–918.

      Blair, S.F., D.R. Deroche, and A.E. Pietrycha, 2008: In situ observations of the 21 April 2007 Tulia, Texas tornado. Electron. J. Severe Storms Meteor., 3 (3), 1–27.

      Bluestein, H.B., M.M. French, R.L. Tanamachi, S. Frasier, K. Hardwick, F. Junyent, and A.L. Pazmany, 2007: Close-range observations of tornadoes in supercells made with a dual-polarization, X-band, mobile Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 1522–1543.

      ——, and A.L. Pazmany, 2000: Mobile Doppler radar observations of a tornado near Verden, Oklahoma, on 3 May 1999. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 29–32.

      ——, 1999: A history of severe-storm-intercept field programs. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 558–577.

      ——, 1994: High-based funnel clouds in the Southern Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 2631–2638.

      ——, 1988: Funnel clouds pendant from high-based cumulus clouds. Weather, 43, 220–221.

      ——, 1985: The formation of a "landspout" in a "broken-line" squall line in Oklahoma. Preprints, 14th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 267–270.

      ——, 1983: Surface meteorological observations in severe thunderstorms. Part II: Field experiments with TOTO. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 919–930.

      Brady, R.H., and E.J. Szoke, 1988: The landspout — A common type of northeast Colorado tornado. Preprints, 15th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Baltimore MD, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 312–315.

      Bunkers, M. J., and J. W. Stoppkotte, 2007: Documentation of a rare tornadic left-moving supercell. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 2(2), 1–22.

      Burgess, D.W., M.A. Magsig, J. Wurman, D. C. Dowell and Y. Richardson, 2002: Radar observations of the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma ity tornado. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 456–471.

      Cooley, J.R., 1978: Cold air funnel clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 1368–1372.

      Doswell, C.A. III, A.R. Moller, and H.E. Brooks, 1999: Storm spotting and public awareness since the first tornado forecasts of 1948. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 544–557.

      ——, and D.W. Burgess, 1993: Tornadoes and tornadic storms: A review of conceptual models. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards (C. Church, D. Burgess, C. Doswell, R. Davies-Jones, Eds.), Geophys. Monogr. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 161–172.

      Dunn, L.B., and S.V. Vasiloff, 2001: Tornadogenesis and operational considerations of the 11 August 1999 Salt Lake City tornado as seen from two different Doppler radars. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 377–398.

      Finch, J., and D. Bikos, 2010: A long-lived tornadic supercell over Colorado and Wyoming, 22 May 2008. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 5 (5), 1–27.

      Geerts, B., T. Andretta, S. Luberda, J. Vogt, Y. Wang, and L. D. Oolman, 2009: A case study of a long-lived tornadic mesocyclone in a low-CAPE complex-terrain environment. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 4 (3), 1–29.

      Johns, R.H., D.W. Burgess, C.A. Doswell III, M.S. Gilmore, J.A. Hart, and S.F. Piltz, 2013: The 1925 Tri-State tornado damage path and associated storm system. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (2), 1–33.

      Karstens, C.D., T.M. Samaras, B.D. Lee, W.A. Gallus Jr., and C.A. Finley, 2010: Near-ground pressure and wind measurements in tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 2570–2588.

      Kennedy, A.D., E.N. Rasmussen, and J.M. Straka, 2007: A visual observation of the 6 June 2005 descending reflectivity core. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 2(6), 1–12.

      Kosiba, K., J. Wurman, Y.P. Richardson, P.M. Markowski, P. Robinson, and J. Marquis, 2013: Genesis of the Goshen County, Wyoming, tornado on 5 June 2009 during VORTEX2. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 1157–1181.

      Lee, B.D., C.A. Finley, and T.M. Samaras, 2011: Surface analysis near and within the Tipton, Kansas, tornado on 29 May 2008. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 370–386.

      Lemon, L. R., and C. A. Doswell III, 1979: Severe thunderstorm evolution and mesocyclone structure as related to tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 1184–1197.

      Markowski, P.M., 2002: Mobile mesonet observations on 3 May 1999. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 430–444.

      ——, E.N. Rasmussen, and J.M. Straka, 1998: The occurrence of tornadoes in supercells interacting with boundaries during VORTEX-95. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 852–859.

      Moller, A.R., and C.A. Doswell III, 1988: A proposed advanced storm spotter's training program. Preprints, 15th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Baltimore MD, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–177.

      ——, 1978: The improved NWS storm spotters’ training program at Ft. Worth, Tex. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59, 1574–1582.

      ——, C.A. Doswell III, J. McGinley, S. Tegtmeier and R. Zipser, 1974: Field observations of the Union City tornado in Oklahoma. Weatherwise, 27, 68–77.

      Monteverdi, J.P., W. Blier, G. Stumpf, W. Pi and K. Anderson, 2001: First WSR-88D documentation of an anticyclonic supercell with anticyclonic tornadoes: The Sunnyvale/Los Altos, California tornadoes of 4 May 1998. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2805–2814.

      Rasmussen, E.N., J.M. Straka, R.P. Davies-Jones, C.A. Doswell III, F.H. Carr, M.D. Eilts, and D.R. MacGorman, 1994: Verification of the Origin of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment: VORTEX. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 1–12.

      ——, and R.E. Peterson, 1982: Tornado photogrammetry: Determination of windspeeds and assessment of errors. Institute for Disaster Research, Texas Tech University, 56 pp. NTIS PB83 148 627.

      Samaras, T.M., 2004: A historical perspective of in-situ observations within tornado cores. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P11.4.

      Tatom, F. B., and K. R. Knupp, 1995: Tornado detection based on seismic signal. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 572–582.

      Thompson, R.L., and R. Edwards, 2000: An overview of environmental conditions and forecast implications of the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 682–699.

      Trapp, R.J., G.J. Stumpf, and K.L. Manross, 2005: A reassessment of the percentage of tornadic mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 680–687.

      Wakimoto, R.M., and J.W. Wilson, 1989: Non-supercell tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1113–1140.

      Ward, N.B., 1961: Radar and surface observations of tornadoes on May 4, 1961. Proceedings, 9th Wea. Radar Conf, Kansas City, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 175–180.

      Wurman, J., K.A. Kosiba, and P. Robinson, 2013: In situ, Doppler radar, and video observations of the interior structure of a tornado and the wind–damage relationship. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 835–846.

      ——, Y. Richardson, C. Alexander, S. Weygandt, and P.F. Zhang, 2007: Dual-Doppler and single-Doppler analysis of a tornadic storm undergoing mergers and repeated tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 736–758.

      ——, 2002: The multiple vortex structure of a tornado. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 473–505.

      ——, J. Straka, and E. Rasmussen, 1996: Fine scale Doppler radar observation of tornadoes. Science, 272, 1774–1777.

    TORNADO AND SUPERCELL STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS

      Atkins, N.T., M.L.Weisman and L.J. Wicker, 1999: The influence of preexisting boundaries on supercell evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2910–2927.

      Beatty, K., E.N. Rasmussen, J.M. Straka, and L.R. Lemon 2009: The supercell spectrum. Part II: A semiobjective method for radar classification of supercell type. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 4 (1), 1–30.

      ——, ——, and ——, 2008: The supercell spectrum. Part I: A review of research related to supercell precipitation morphology. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 3 (4), 1–21.

      Beck, V., and N. Dotzek, 2010: Reconstruction of near-surface tornado wind fields from forest damage. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 1517–1537.

      Bluestein, H.B., C.C. Weiss, and A.L. Pazmany, 2004: The vertical structure of a tornado near Happy, Texas, on 5 May 2002: High-resolution, mobile, W-band, Doppler radar observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2325–2337.

      Brooks, H.E., and C.A. Doswell III, 2002: Deaths in the 3 May 1999 tornadoes from a historical perspective. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 354–361.

      ——, ——, and J. Cooper (1994): On the environments of tornadic and nontornadic mesocyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 606–618.

      Burgess, D.W., and E.B. Curran, 1985: The relationship of storm type to environment in Oklahoma on 26 April 1984. Preprints, 14th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis IN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 208–211.

      Davies-Jones, R.P., 2000: Can the hook echo instigate tornadogenesis barotropically? Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 269–272.

      ——, 1986: Tornado dynamics. Thunderstorms: A Social, Scientific, and Technological Documentary. Vol. 2: Thunderstorm Morphology and Dynamics (E. Kessler, Ed.), Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 197–236.

      ——, 1984: Streamwise vorticity: The origin of updraft rotation in supercell storms. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 2991–3006.

      ——, 1982: A new look at the vorticity equation with application to tornadogenesis. Preprints, 12th Conf. Severe Local Storms, San Antonio TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 249–252.

      ——, and H.E. Brooks, 1993: Mesocyclogenesis from a theoretical perspective. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church et al., Eds.), Geophysical Monograph 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 105–114.

      Doswell, C.A. III, and D.W. Burgess, 1993: Tornadoes and tornadic storms: A review of conceptual models. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards (C. Church, D. Burgess, C. Doswell, R. Davies-Jones, Eds.), Geophys. Monogr. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 161–172.

      Dowell, D.C., C.R. Alexander, J.M. Wurman, and L.J. Wicker, 2005: Centrifuging of hydrometeors and debris in tornadoes: Radar-reflectivity patterns and wind-measurement errors. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 1501–1524.

      Fiedler, B.H., 2009: Suction vortices and spiral breakdown in numerical simulations of tornado-like vortices. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 10, 109–114. doi:10.1002/asl.217.

      Forbes, G.S., and R. Wakimoto, 1983: A concentrated outbreak of tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts, and implications regarding vortex classification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 220–235.

      Fujita, T.T., 1977: Anticyclonic tornadoes. Weatherwise, 30, 51–64.

      ——, 1971: Proposed mechanism of suction spots accompanied by tornadoes. Preprints, 7th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Kansas City MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 208–213.

      Gilmore, M.S., and L.J. Wicker, 1998: The influence of midtropospheric dryness on supercell morphology and evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 943–958.

      Kennedy, A., J.M. Straka, and E.N. Rasmussen, 2007: A statistical study of the association of DRCs with supercells and tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1191–1199.

      Klemp, J.B., 1987: Dynamics of tornadic thunderstorms. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 19, 369–402.

      Kosiba, K., and J. Wurman, 2013: The three-dimensional structure and evolution of a tornado boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 28, 1552–1561.

      Kumjian, M. R., 2011: Precipitation properties of supercell hook echoes. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 6 (5), 1–21.

      Lee, W.-C., and J. Wurman, 2005: The diagnosed structure of the Mulhall tornado. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2373–2393.

      Lemon, L.R., and C.A. Doswell III, 1979: Severe thunderstorm evolution and mesocyclone structure as related to tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 1184–1197.

      Lewellen, D.C., B. Gong, and W.S. Lewellen, 2008: Effects of finescale debris on near-surface tornado dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3247–3262.

      ——, and W.S. Lewellen, 2007: Near-surface vortex intensification through corner flow collapse. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2195–2209.

      Lewellen, W.S., 1993: Tornado vortex theory. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards (C. Church, D. Burgess, C. Doswell, R. Davies-Jones, Eds.), Geophys. Monogr. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 19–39.

      Markowski, P.M., and Y.P. Richardson, 2009: Tornadogenesis: Our current understanding, forecasting considerations, and questions to guide future research. Atmos. Res., 93, 3–10.

      Nolan, D.S., 2013: On the use of Doppler radar-derived wind fields to diagnose the secondary circulations of tornadoes. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 1160–1171.

      ——, and B.F. Farrell, 1999: The structure and dynamics of tornado-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2908–2936.

      Rasmussen, E.M., and J. M. Straka, 1998: Variations in supercell morphology. Part I: Observations of the role of upper-level storm-relative flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2406–2421.

      Rotunno, R., 2013: The fluid dynamics of tornadoes. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 45, 59–84.

      ——, 1979: A study of tornado-like vortex dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 140–155.

      ——, 1986: Tornadoes and tornadogenesis. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting (P.S. Ray, Ed.), Amer. Meteor. Soc., 414–436.

      ——, and J.B. Klemp, 1985: On the rotation and propagation of simulated supercell thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 271–292.

      Schumacher, P.N., and J.M. Boustead, 2011: Mesocyclone evolution essociated with varying shear profiles during the 24 June 2003 tornado outbreak. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 808–827.

      Straka, J.M., E.N. Rasmussen, R.P. Davies-Jones, and P.M. Markowski, 2007: An observational and idealized numerical examination of low-level counter-rotating vortices in the rear flank of supercells. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 2(8), 1–22.

      Trapp, R.J., and R. P. Davies-Jones, 1997: Tornadogenesis with and without a dynamic pipe effect. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 113–133.

      Wakimoto, R.M., P. Stauffer, W.-C. Lee, N.T. Atkins, and J. Wurman, 2012: Finescale structure of the LaGrange, Wyoming, tornado during VORTEX2: GBVTD and photogrammetric analyses. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 3397–3418.

      ——, and J.W. Wilson, 1989: Non-supercell tornadoes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1113–1140.

      Ward, N.B., 1972: The exploration of certain features of tornado dynamics using a laboratory model. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1194–1204.

      Wicker, L.J., 1990: A numerical simulation of a tornado-scale vortex in a three-dimensional cloud model. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61820, 264 pp.

      Wurman, J., K. Kosiba, P. Robinson, and T.P. Marshall, 2014: The role of multiple-vortex tornado structure in causing storm researcher fatalities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 31–45

      ——, 2002: The multiple vortex structure of a tornado. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 473–505.

    TORNADO PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE

      Aguirre, B.E., 1988: The lack of warnings before the Saragosa tornado. Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters, 6, 65–74.

      Ashley, W.S., A.J. Krmenec, and R. Schwantes, 2008: Vulnerability due to nocturnal tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 795–807.

      ——, 2007: Spatial and temporal analysis of tornado fatalities in the United States: 1880–2005. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1214–1228.

      Biddle, M.D., 2000: Warning response and risk behavior in the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City long track violent tornado. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 650–653.

      Blair, S.F., and E.P.K. Lunde, 2010: Tornadoes impacting Interstates: Service and societal considerations. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 5 (4), 1–16.

      Brooks, H.E., C.A. Doswell III, and D. Sutter, 2008: Comments: Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 87–90.

      Brotzge, J., and S. Erickson, 2010: Tornadoes without NWS warning. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 159–172.

      ——, and ——, 2009: NWS tornado warnings with zero or negative lead times. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 140–154.

      Brown, S., P. Archer, E. Kruger, and S. Mallonee, 2002: Tornado-related deaths and injuries in Oklahoma due to the 3 May 1999 tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 343–353.

      Buckley, J.W., 2002: After the storm: Building a safe shelter for the school children of Mulhall, Oklahoma. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 626–634.

      Daley, W. R., S. Brown, P. Archer, E. Kruger, F. Jordan, D. Batts, and S. Mallonee, 2005: Risk of tornado-related death and injury in Oklahoma, May 3, 1999. Amer. J. Epidemiol., 161, 1144–1150.

      Edwards, R., and L.R. Lemon, 2002: Proactive or reactive? The severe storm threat to large event venues. Preprints, 21st Conf. Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

      Hammer, B.O., and T. W. Schmidlin, 2002: Response to warnings during the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City tornado: Reasons and relative injury rates. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 577–581.

      Legates, D.R., and M.D. Biddle, 1999: Warning response and risk behavior in the Oak Grove–Birmingham, Alabama, tornado of 8 April 1998. Natural Hazards Center Quick Response Report 116.

      Marshall, T.P., 2000: Damage survey of the Moore, Oklahoma tornado. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–8.

      Quoetone, E.M., D.A. Andra, Jr., and W.F. Bunting, 2000: Warning decision making process during the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–4.

      Rae, S., and J. Stefkovich, 2000: The tornado damage risk assessment: Predicting the impact of a big outbreak in Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 295–296.

      Rothfusz, L.P., 2000: National Weather Service warnings: Comparing expectations with reality. 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 311–314.

      Schmidlin, T.W., P.S. King, B.O. Hammer, and Y. Ono, 1998: Risk factors for death in the 22–23 February 1998 Florida tornadoes. Natural Hazards Center Quick Response Report 106.

      ——, B.O. Hammer, Y. Ono, and P. King, 2000: Tornado shelter-seeking behavior and shelter options among mobile home residents. 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 301–302.

      Schumacher, R.S., D.T. Lindsey, A.B. Schumacher, J. Braun, S.D. Miller, and J.L. Demuth, 2010: Multidisciplinary analysis of an unusual tornado: Meteorology, climatology, and the communication and interpretation of warnings. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 1412–1429.

      Sherman-Morris, K., 2009: Tornado warning dissemination and response at a university campus. Nat. Hazards, 52, 623–638.

      Simmons, K.M., and D. Sutter, 2008: Tornado warnings, lead times, and tornado casualties: An empirical investigation. Wea. Forecasting, 23, 246–258.

      Wood, V.T., and R.A. Weisman, 2000: Impact of severe weather warnings on the hearing imparied. Preprints, 20th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Orlando FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 303–306.

      Wurman, J., C. Alexander, P. Robinson, and Y. Richardson, 2007: Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 31–46.

      ——, ——, ——, and ——, 2008: Reply to Comments: Low-level winds in tornadoes and potential catastrophic tornado impacts in urban areas. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 90–94.

    OTHER REFERENCES

      American Meteorological Society (AMS), 2000: Glossary of Meteorology. 855 pp.


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