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Storm Prediction Center WCM Page
Intro | State Summaries | U.S. Annual Tornado Maps | 2014 Preliminary Reports to Date
Monthly Tornadoes Since 1950 | Bi-monthly Tornadoes by ENSO Phase Strength
Watch Frequency Maps | 20y Annual Average Watches by County | SPC AWIPS Products | Data | SVR GIS
Warning Coordination Meteorologist's Introduction

Welcome to the WCM Page for the SPC. This page has charts of the latest preliminary severe storm reports, annual summaries, and links to comma-separated-value (csv) data files from the SPC severe weather database back to 1950. As time allows, this page may occasionally serve as a place for preliminary severe weather event assessments.

For additional insight into severe thunderstorms and tornado reports, the SPC and the National Severe Storms Laboratory are collaborating on posting non-operational "feature" content to the U.S. Severe Weather Blog, hosted by NOAA Public Affairs in Norman, Oklahoma.

Check out the annual tornado maps from 1950 through 2009 at the WCM's Annual Tornado Maps page.

Greg Carbin
Warning Coordination Meteorologist
NWS/NCEP Storm Prediction Center

Histogram of Tornado Counts through April 21
EF1+ Tornadoes thru April 21
2014 has likely established a new low in tornado activity through the 21st of April. Counts through this date are shown in a histogram that exhibits the distribution of tornado counts through this point in the year for the past 62 years (1953-2014). (Click for full resolution chart.)

Longest Spans Between Tornadoes Rated (E)F-3 or Stronger
Spans Between EF-3 Tornadoes
At 152 days on April 18, 2014, the span between EF-3 or stronger tornadoes is the 4th longest span between in the last 60 years. Heres is a plot of the 10 longest spans between EF-3 and stronger toronadoes since 1953. (Click for full resolution image.)

A look back at April 3-4, 1974 with a high resolution model.
A look back at April 3-4, 1974
With today's convection-allowing models, or storm-scale guidance, here's what the infamous April 1974 Super Outbreak model forecast might have looked like if this type of simulation was around 40 years ago. On the left is the tornado track map compiled by Dr. Fujita and colleagues. On the right is a model simulation initialized from modern grid-based data in the North American Mesoscale Model (NAM) with inputs from observed values at 00 UTC, April 3, 1974. The high resolution model generates simulated rotating thunderstorms and those storms with the strongest and most persistent rotation are shown in this summary plot for the 24-hour period from the morning of April 3 through the morning of April 4, 1974. (Click for full resolution image.)

Analysis of Partial Season SPC Watch Counts
Seasonal Watch Analysis
An evaluation of the number of watches issued during the winter seasons and following spring seasons over the past 9 years (back to 2006). This evaluation also includes answers to commonly asked questions that begin to come up around this time of year, or when severe weather has been less active. (Click for detailed write-up as a pdf document.)

Daily Probability of a Tornado Anywhere in U.S. Based on Past 33 Years
Daily Tornado Probability Curve
SPC Science Support Branch Scientist, Dr. Patrick Marsh derived the probability of at least one tornado anywhere in the U.S. based on U.S. tornado reports since 1980. (Click for full resolution chart.)

2013 Tornadoes by EF-Scale Map
2013 Tornadoes by EF-scale Map
(Click for full resolution map.)

Severe Weather Reports Per Year (2003-2012)
Any severe weather days per year. Tornado days per year.
Severe hail days per year. Thunderstorm wind days per year.
These maps were created by gridding the total number of daily severe weather reports (Midnight to 11:59pm CDT) over the 10-year period from 2003 through 2012 on a 80km grid. The resulting grid numbers are then divided by 10 and smoothed to arrive at the annual average number of days with a report of severe weather based on official NWS Storm Data records. The 80km grid-point value corresponds to the number of events within 25 miles of a point. While the resulting maps generally match our understanding of severe weather climatology, there are a few exceptions that come about as a result of how the severe weather event is quantified. Even through the data are smoothed, severe weather reports cluster around population centers. This can be seen on the "any" or "all" severe weather map in the upper left. Maximum values show up around Charlotte, NC, Huntsville, AL, Jackson, MS, Springfield, MO, and Dallas, TX. These are locations where more severe weather is reported because more people live in those areas. The hail reports used to generate the hail frequency map are from reports of hail 1 inch or greater in diameter. Large hail reports are most common from Rapid City, SD to Denver, CO, Dodge City, KS, and Springfield, MO. The wind report map perhaps poses the greatest challenge in terms of representing where a greater severe thunderstorm wind threat may exist. The majority of severe thunderstorm wind reports are verified by falling trees *not* by observed wind gusts of 50 knots or greater. Thus, there is a distinct tendency for severe thunderstorm winds to be reported in areas with more trees. Recent peer-reviewed studies have compared the severe weather reports used to make these maps with automated observations (for wind), and radar data (for hail). These studies have found that greater concentrations/frequencies of severe hail (based on radar) and 50kt or greater severe thunderstorm wind gusts (based on automated observations) are more likely to occur over parts of the Great Plains and Midwest than what might be indicated in the maps shown here. (Click each map for full resolution version.)


An Objective High-Resolution Hail Climatology of the Contiguous United States
John L. Cintineo, Travis M. Smith, Valliappa Lakshmanan, Harold E. Brooks, Kiel L. Ortega
Weather and Forecasting
Volume 27, Issue 5 (October 2012) pp. 1235-1248

Measured Severe Convective Wind Climatology and Associated Convective Modes of Thunderstorms in the Contiguous United States, 2003-09
Bryan T. Smith, Tomas E. Castellanos, Andrew C. Winters, Corey M. Mead, Andrew R. Dean, Richard L. Thompson
Weather and Forecasting (Also here.)
Volume 28, Issue 1 (February 2013) pp. 229-236

Annual Tornado Maps (1952-2011)
Maps of Annual Tornadoes from 1952 to 2011
(Click on the maps to go to the Annual Tornado Maps page.)

Annual Average Number of Tornadoes by State
Mouse over or click for full image --->    30y Average       |       20y Average       |       10y Average
Annual Average Number of Tornado Deaths by State
Mouse over or click for full image --->    30y Average       |       20y Average       |       10y Average
Other U.S. Tornado Summaries
Mouse over or click for full image --->    By State Area   |    By County   |    Total Fatalities
U.S. Monthly Tornado Counts, 1950-2010
Monthly tornado sums (excluding (E)F0 tornadoes) for each month, 1950-2010.
(Click to go to calendar page.)
Daily Counts and Annual Running Trend (Updated Frequently)
Mouse over or click for full image --->    Tornado Reports   |    Hail Reports   |    Wind Reports
End of year charts for 2013: Tornadoes, Hail, and Wind.
End of year charts for 2012: Tornadoes, Hail, and Wind.
End of year charts for 2011: Tornadoes, Hail, and Wind.
U.S. Annual Tornado Trends
Plot of the annual running total of U.S. tornadoes. (Click on image for a full resolution version.)

End of year chart for 2013
End of year chart for 2012
End of year chart for 2011
Annual Tornado Running Totals
Plot of the annual running total of tornado reports compared to inflation adjusted values.9
(Click on graph for a full description.)

End of year chart for 2013
End of year chart for 2012
End of year chart for 2011
ENSO Strength and Bi-monthly U.S. Tornadoes since 1950
(Click link above to go to ENSO page.)
2013 SPC Watch Frequency Maps
2013 Watches and Anomalies
2013 Tornado and Severe Watch Count by County and Anomaly (Click for full-resolution version.)

2012 SPC Watch Frequency Maps
2012 Watches and Anomalies
2012 Tornado and Severe Watch Count by County and Anomaly (Click for full-resolution version.)

2011 SPC Watch Frequency Maps
2011 Watches and Anomalies
2011 Tornado and Severe Watch Count by County and Anomaly (Click for full-resolution version.)

2010 SPC Watch Frequency Maps
2010 Watches and Anomalies
2010 Tornado and Severe Watch Count by County and Anomaly (Click for full-resolution version.)

2009 SPC Watch Frequency Maps
Watch Anomalies
2009 Tornado and Severe Watch Count by County and Anomaly (Click for full-resolution version.)

SPC Average Annual Watch Frequency Maps
Tornado Watches
Average number of tornado watches per year (1993-2012). (Click for full-resolution version.)
Severe Thunderstorm Watches
Average number of severe thunderstorm watches per year (1993-2012). (Click for full-resolution version.)
SPC Tornado and Severe Weather Statistical Products on AWIPS
Monthly Tornado Statistics are maintained in the AWIPS product STAMTS. Use this product to find out how many tornadoes have occured so far this year and how this year compares to past years.

Killer Tornado Statistics are listed in the AWIPS product STATIJ. Use this product for information about killer tornadoes this year and in the past.

Severe Weather Database Files (1950-2012)

The table below provides links to comma separated value (.csv) files for tornado, hail, and damaging wind data as compiled from NWS Storm Data. Tornado reports exist back to 1950 while hail and damaging wind reports date from 1955. The full datasets are very large, especially hail and wind. To facilitate quicker downloads these data have been parsed by decade (1950s through 1990s), and half-decade, or less (from 2000 to the present).

Please read this document carefully as it describes the format of the .csv files (especially important for tornadoes!). Also note! The NWS changed Severe hail criteria from 0.75 inch minimum to 1.00 inch minimum in 2010. For legacy purposes, 0.75 inch hail reports will continue to be included in the latest hail csv files. Download the files and sort accordingly if needed.

It should further be noted that these data are used by the NWS for verification purposes and may not accurately reflect all storm events. Monetary loss information is highly suspect and should be used with caution, if at all. This article provides a good overview about the shortcomings in the NWS severe weather data provided here.

2013_torn.csv (0.10 mb)
2013_hail.csv (1.0 mb )
2013_wind.csv (1.5 mb )
2012_torn.csv (0.10 mb)
2012_hail.csv (1.4 mb )
2012_wind.csv (1.7 mb )
2011_torn.csv (0.20 mb)
2011_hail.csv (2.0 mb )
2011_wind.csv (2.5 mb )
2010_torn.csv (0.14 mb)
2010_hail.csv (1.1 mb )
2010_wind.csv (1.6 mb )
2009_torn.csv (0.14 mb)
2009_hail.csv (1.4 mb )
2009_wind.csv (1.5 mb )
2008_torn.csv (0.18 mb)
2008_hail.csv (1.7 mb )
2008_wind.csv (1.7 mb )
2005-2007_torn.csv (0.25 mb)
2005-2007_hail.csv (4 mb )
2005-2007_wind.csv (4 mb )
2000-2004_torn.csv (0.7 mb)
2000-2004_hail.csv (6 mb)
2000-2004_wind.csv (6 mb)
90-99_torn.csv (1 mb)
90-99_hail.csv (6 mb)
90-99_wind.csv (8 mb)
80-89_torn.csv (0.75 mb)
80-89_hail.csv (2.5 mb)
80-89_wind.csv (3.5 mb)
70-79_torn.csv (0.82 mb)
70-79_hail.csv (1 mb)
70-79_wind.csv (1.6 mb)
60-69_torn.csv (0.65 mb)
60-69_hail.csv (0.67 mb)
60-69_wind.csv (0.90 mb)
50-59_torn.csv (0.46 mb)
55-59_hail.csv (0.20 mb)
55-59_wind.csv (0.28 mb)

All tornadoes in one 6mb file. (Same format as above but for 1950-2013.)
Map of State FIPS Numbers here.
Text list of County FIPS Numbers here.
Better list of County FIPS Numbers (as xls file) here.

SPC Severe GIS Page
Tornado Tracks
U.S. map depicting tornado tracks and population density. (Click to go to SPC Severe GIS Page.)

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